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So, you've heard the climate is changing; and now you want to see the proof. Here are the studies, pro and con. We have only include those produced by credible sources, and provided links to the source. Major universities are considered to be credible sources, websites like "JoesConspiracyTheory.com" are not. Even among the "credible" sources, there may be researchers and groups who have a reason to profit from promoting a particular perspective, so just because we added them to the list does not mean we agree with the veracity of their data or conclusions. But, we would rather error somewhat on the side of being too inclusive and allowing skepticism to ferret out the truth over time.
The challenge is first to define the change. If it is random, and shows no trend, then, it is probably a moot point and the discussion is pointless. But those who promote "climate change" are usually referring to overall "global warming", although sometimes they cite "climate change" as the reason for extreme weather in any direction, including unusually cold winters, hurricanes, tornados, etc.
EPA says scientists have documented long-term changes around the world in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and the amount of heat stored in the ocean
Especially dramatic changes are underway in the Arctic, where warming is amplified by powerful feedbacks. Reductions in sea ice, land-based ice, and snow cover, along with the thawing of permafrost, are having profound impacts in the Arctic and beyond.
Rising sea levels, caused mainly by the expansion of seawater as it warms, along with billions of tons of water added to the ocean each year from melting glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets, are affecting coastal communities in many parts of the world, including places like South Florida, Chesapeake Bay, and lowlying communities along the Gulf Coast in the United States.
Changes in the length of growing and pollen seasons, the timing of bird migrations, and range shifts in plants and wildlife provide still more evidence for recent changes in climate.2 See the signs of climate change in EPA's report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States: See the EPA's page here.
A link to the report or study is provided, along with the relevant synopsis or statement.
|Indicator||Click here for more information||Synopsis|
|CO2 levels in the atmosphere are rising||Nasa, Graph of Atmospheric carbon ,||The Earth's climate has changed throughout history. Just in the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 7,000 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era - and of human civilization. Most of these climate changes are attributed to very small variations in Earth's orbit that change the amount of solar energy our planet receives. The current warming trend is of particular significance because most of it is very likely human-induced and proceeding at a rate that is unprecedented in the past 1,300 years.1|
|Average global temperature is rising||Average global temperatures are rising||The global average temperature increased by more than 1.4�F over the last century.  In fact, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the decade from 2000 to 2010 was the warmest on record, and 2010 was tied with 2005 as the warmest year on record.  Rising global temperatures have also been accompanied by other changes in weather and climate. Many places have experienced changes in rainfall resulting in more intense rain, as well as more frequent and severe heat waves. Note: You will see a few news stories and claims that these tables use data fabricated by computer models, but those allegations have been roundly refuted. The need to adjust the data was based on a number of technical changes. In the mid 1980s, the government settled on a list of about 1,200 stations across the country to track temperature trends. Around 1990, climatologists began delivering computer programs to factor in the artificial changes that systematically pushed the readings one way or the other. Over time, they accounted for the impacts of equipment, location, the time of day of measurements and urbanization (more asphalt leads to higher surface temperatures). See this Wikipedia article for the full story .|
|Sea levels are rising||Sea levels are rising||The planet's oceans and glaciers have also experienced changes: oceans are warming and becoming more acidic, ice caps are melting, and sea levels are rising.  All of these changes are evidence that our world is getting warmer.|
|Polar ice caps, Glaciers and permafrost are declining||Ice / snow||Some studies show that the Artic sea ice cap are shrinking, but the Antartic ice is growing. Similarly, many glaciers are shrinking, while others are growing. From the start of satellite observations in 1979 to 2014, total Antarctic sea ice increased by about 1 percent per decade.|