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OSHA Construction Safety Regulations - Subpart K

OSHA Health & Safety Construction-related Regulations - K - 400 to 450

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Subpart K - Electrical

CFR# 1926.400 - Electrical - General.

This subpart addresses electrical safety requirements that are necessary for the practical safeguarding of employees involved in construction work and is divided into four major divisions and applicable definitions as follows:

(a) Installation safety requirements. Installation safety requirements are contained in 1926.402 through 1926.408. Included in this category are electric equipment and installations used to provide electric power and light on jobsites.

(b) Safety-related work practices. Safety-related work practices are contained in 1926.416 and 1926.417. In addition to covering the hazards arising from the use of electricity at jobsites, these regulations also cover the hazards arising from the accidental contact, direct or indirect, by employees with all energized lines, above or below ground, passing through or near the jobsite.

(c) Safety-related maintenance and environmental considerations. Safety-related maintenance and environmental considerations are contained in 1926.431 and 1926.432.

(d) Safety requirements for special equipment. Safety requirements for special equipment are contained in 1926.441.

(e) Definitions. Definitions applicable to this Subpart are contained in 1926.449.

CFR# 1926.402 - Applicability.

(a) Covered. Sections 1926.402 through 1926.408 contain installation safety requirements for electrical equipment and installations used to provide electric power and light at the jobsite. These sections apply to installations, both temporary and permanent, used on the jobsite; but these sections do not apply to existing permanent installations that were in place before the construction activity commenced.

NOTE: If the electrical installation is made in accordance with the National Electrical Code ANSI/NFPA 70-1984, exclusive of Formal Interpretations and Tentative Interim Amendments, it will be deemed to be in compliance with 1926.403 through 1926.408, except for 1926.404(b)(1) and 1926.405(a)(2)(ii)(E), (F), (G), and (J).

(b) Not covered. Sections 1926.402 through 1926.408 do not cover installations used for the generation, transmission, and distribution of electric energy, including related communication, metering, control, and transformation installations. (However, these regulations do cover portable and vehicle-mounted generators used to provide power for equipment used at the jobsite.) See Subpart V of this Part for the construction of power distribution and transmission lines.

CFR# 1926.403 - General requirements.

(a) Approval. All electrical conductors and equipment shall be approved.

(b) Examination, installation, and use of equipment.

(b)(1) Examination. The employer shall ensure that electrical equipment is free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees. Safety of equipment shall be determined on the basis of the following considerations:

(b)(1)(i) Suitability for installation and use in conformity with the provisions of this subpart. Suitability of equipment for an identified purpose may be evidenced by listing, labeling, or certification for that identified purpose.

(b)(1)(ii) Mechanical strength and durability, including, for parts designed to enclose and protect other equipment, the adequacy of the protection thus provided.

(b)(1)(iii) Electrical insulation.

(b)(1)(iv) Heating effects under conditions of use.

(b)(1)(v) Arcing effects.

(b)(1)(vi) Classification by type, size, voltage, current capacity, specific use.

(b)(1)(vii) Other factors which contribute to the practical safeguarding of employees using or likely to come in contact with the equipment.

(b)(2) Installation and use. Listed, labeled, or certified equipment shall be installed and used in accordance with instructions included in the listing, labeling, or certification.

(c) Interrupting rating. Equipment intended to break current shall have an interrupting rating at system voltage sufficient for the current that must be interrupted.

(d) Mounting and cooling of equipment-

(d)(1) Mounting. Electric equipment shall be firmly secured to the surface on which it is mounted. Wooden plugs driven into holes in masonry, concrete, plaster, or similar materials shall not be used.

(d)(2) Cooling. Electrical equipment which depends upon the natural circulation of air and convection principles for cooling of exposed surfaces shall be installed so that room air flow over such surfaces is not prevented by walls or by adjacent installed equipment. For equipment designed for floor mounting, clearance between top surfaces and adjacent surfaces shall be provided to dissipate rising warm air. Electrical equipment provided with ventilating openings shall be installed so that walls or other obstructions do not prevent the free circulation of air through the equipment.

(e) Splices. Conductors shall be spliced or joined with splicing devices designed for the use or by brazing, welding, or soldering with a fusible metal or alloy. Soldered splices shall first be so spliced or joined as to be mechanically and electrically secure without solder and then soldered. All splices and joints and the free ends of conductors shall be covered with an insulation equivalent to that of the conductors or with an insulating device designed for the purpose.

(f) Arcing parts. Parts of electric equipment which in ordinary operation produce arcs, sparks, flames, or molten metal shall be enclosed or separated and isolated from all combustible material.

(g) Marking. Electrical equipment shall not be used unless the manufacturer's name, trademark, or other descriptive marking by which the organization responsible for the product may be identified is placed on the equipment and unless other markings are provided giving voltage, current, wattage, or other ratings as necessary. The marking shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved.

(h) Identification of disconnecting means and circuits. Each disconnecting means required by this subpart for motors and appliances shall be legibly marked to indi

cate its purpose, unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. Each service, feeder, and branch circuit, at its disconnecting means or overcurrent device, shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose, unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. These markings shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved.

(i) 600 Volts, nominal, or less. This paragraph applies to equipment operating at 600 volts, nominal, or less.

(i)(1) Working space about electric equipment. Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained about all electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment.

(i)(1)(i) Working clearances. Except as required or permitted elsewhere in this subpart, the dimension of the working space in the direction of access to live parts operating at 600 volts or less and likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while alive shall not be less than indicated in Table K-1. In addition to the dimensions shown in Table K-1, workspace shall not be less than 30 inches (762 mm) wide in front of the electric equipment. Distances shall be measured from the live parts if they are exposed, or from the enclosure front or opening if the live parts are enclosed. Walls constructed of concrete, brick, or tile are considered to be grounded. Working space is not required in back of assemblies such as dead-front switchboards or motor control centers where there are no renewable or adjustable parts such as fuses or switches on the back and where all connections are accessible from locations other than the back.

TABLE K-1 - Working Clearances
Nominal voltage to groundMinimum clear distance for conditions 1
0 - 150

150 - 600

3 ft 2

3 ft 2

3 ft 2

3 � ft 2

3 ft 2

4 ft 2

1 Conditions (a), (b), and (c) are as follows: [a] Exposed live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides effectively guarded by insulating material. Insulated wire or insulated busbars operating at not over 300 volts are not considered live parts. [b] Exposed live parts n one side and grounded parts on the other side. [c] Exposed live parts on both sides of the workplace [not guarded as provided in Condition (a)] with the operator between.

2 Note: For International System of Units (SI): one foot=0.3048m.

CFR# 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

(a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding conductors.

(a)(1) Identification of conductors. A conductor used as a grounded conductor shall be identifiable and distinguishable from all other conductors. A conductor used as an equipment grounding conductor shall be identifiable and distinguishable from all other conductors.

(a)(2) Polarity of connections. No grounded conductor shall be attached to any terminal or lead so as to reverse designated polarity.

(a)(3) Use of grounding terminals and devices. A grounding terminal or grounding-type device on a receptacle, cord connector, or attachment plug shall not be used for purposes other than grounding.

(b) Branch circuits.

(b)(1) Ground-fault protection.

(b)(1)(i) General. The employer shall use either ground fault circuit interrupters as specified in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section or an assured equipment grounding conductor program as specified in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section to protect employees on construction sites. These requirements are in addition to any other requirements for equipment grounding conductors.

(b)(1)(ii) Ground-fault circuit interrupters. All 120-volt, single-phase 15- and 20-ampere receptacle outlets on construction sites, which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in use by employees, shall have approved ground-fault circuit interrupters for personnel protection. Receptacles on a two-wire, single-phase portable or vehicle-mounted generator rated not more than 5kV, where the circuit conductors of the generator are insulated from the generator frame and all other grounded surfaces, need not be protected with ground-fault circuit interrupters.

(b)(1)(iii) Assured equipment grounding conductor program. The employer shall establish and implement an assured equipment grounding conductor program on construction sites covering all cord sets, receptacles which are not a part of the building or structure, and equipment connected by cord and plug which are available for use or used by employees. This program shall comply with the following minimum requirements:

(b)(1)(iii)(A) A written description of the program, including the specific procedures adopted by the employer, shall be available at the jobsite for inspection and copying by the Assistant Secretary and any affected employee.

(b)(1)(iii)(B) The employer shall designate one or more competent persons (as defined in 1926.32(f)) to implement the program.

(b)(1)(iii)(C) Each cord set, attachment cap, plug and receptacle of cord sets, and any equipment connected by cord and plug, except cord sets and receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage, shall be visually inspected before each day's use for external defects, such as deformed or missing pins or insulation damage, and for indications of possible internal damage. Equipment found damaged or defective shall not be used until repaired.

(b)(1)(iii)(D) The following tests shall be performed on all cord sets, receptacles which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure, and cord- and plug-connected equipment required to be grounded:

(1) All equipment grounding conductors shall be tested for continuity and shall be electrically continuous.

(2) Each receptacle and attachment cap or plug shall be tested for correct attachment of the equipment grounding conductor. The equipment grounding conductor shall be connected to its proper terminal.

(b)(1)(iii)(E) All required tests shall be performed:

(1) Before first use;

(2) Before equipment is returned to service following any repairs;

(3) Before equipment is used after any incident which can be reasonably suspected

to have caused damage (for example, when a cord set is run over); and

(4) At intervals not to exceed 3 months, except that cord sets and receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage shall be tested at intervals not exceeding 6 months.

(b)(1)(iii)(F) The employer shall not make available or permit the use by employees of any equipment which has not met the requirements of this paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.

(b)(1)(iii)(G) Tests performed as required in this paragraph shall be recorded. This test record shall identify each receptacle, cord set, and cord- and plug-connected equipment that passed the test and shall indicate the last date it was tested or the interval for which it was tested. This record shall be kept by means of logs, color coding, or other effective means and shall be maintained until replaced by a more current record. The record shall be made available on the jobsite for inspection by the Assistant Secretary and any affected employee.

(b)(2) Outlet devices. Outlet devices shall have an ampere rating not less than the load to be served and shall comply with the following:

(b)(2)(i) Single receptacles. A single receptacle installed on an individual branch circuit shall have an ampere rating of not less than that of the branch circuit.

(b)(2)(ii) Two or more receptacles. Where connected to a branch circuit supplying two or more receptacles or outlets, receptacle ratings shall conform to the values listed in Table K-4.

(b)(2)(iii) Receptacles used for the connection of motors. The rating of an attachment plug or receptacle used for cord- and plug-connection of a motor to a branch circuit shall not exceed 15 amperes at 125 volts or 10 amperes at 250 volts if individual overload protection is omitted.

TABLE K-4. - Receptacle Ratings
for Various Size Circuits
Circuit rating amperesReceptacle rating amperes





Not over 15.

15 or 20.


40 or 50.


(c)(1)(iii) Clearance from building openings. Conductors shall have a clearance of at least 3 feet (914 mm) from windows, doors, fire escapes, or similar locations. Conductors run above the top level of a window are considered to be out of reach from that window and, therefore, do not have to be 3 feet (914 mm) away.

(c)(1)(iv) Clearance over roofs. Conductors above roof space accessible to employees on foot shall have a clearance from the highest point of the roof surface of not less than 8 feet (2.44 m) vertical clearance for insulated conductors, not less than 10 feet (3.05 m) vertical or diagonal clearance for covered conductors, and not less than 15 feet (4.57 m) for bare conductors, except that:

(c)(1)(iv)(A) Where the roof space is also accessible to vehicular traffic, the vertical clearance shall not be less than 18 feet (5.49 m), or

(c)(1)(iv)(B) Where the roof space is not normally accessible to employees on foot, fully insulated conductors shall have a vertical or diagonal clearance of not less than 3 feet (914 mm), or

(c)(1)(iv)(C) Where the voltage between conductors is 300 volts or less and the roof has a slope of not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 12 inches (305 mm), the clearance from roofs shall be at least 3 feet (914 mm), or

(c)(1)(iv)(D) Where the voltage between conductors is 300 volts or less and the conductors do not pass over more than 4 feet (1.22 m) of the overhang portion of the roof and they are terminated at a through-the-roof raceway or support, the clearance from roofs shall be at least 18 inches (457 mm).

(c)(2) Location of outdoor lamps. Lamps for outdoor lighting shall be located below all live conductors, transformers, or other electric equipment, unless such equipment is controlled by a disconnecting means that can be locked in the open position or unless adequate clearances or other safeguards are provided for relamping operations.

(d) Services.

(d)(1) Disconnecting means.

(d)(1)(i) General. Means shall be provided to disconnect all conductors in a building or other structure from the service-entrance conductors. The disconnecting means shall plainly indicate whether it is in the open or closed position and shall be installed at a readily accessible location nearest the point of entrance of the service-entrance conductors.

(d)(1)(ii) Simultaneous opening of poles. Each service disconnecting means shall simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded conductors.

(d)(2) Services over 600 volts, nominal. The following additional requirements apply to services over 600 volts, nominal.

(d)(2)(i) Guarding. Service-entrance conductors installed as open wires shall be guarded to make them accessible only to qualified persons.

(d)(2)(ii) Warning signs. Signs warning of high voltage shall be posted where unauthorized employees might come in contact with live parts.

(e) Overcurrent protection.

(e)(1) 600 volts, nominal, or less. The following requirements apply to overcurrent protection of circuits rated 600 volts, nominal, or less.

(e)(1)(i) Protection of conductors and equipment. Conductors and equipment shall be protected from overcurrent in accordance with their ability to safely conduct current. Conductors shall have sufficient ampacity to carry the load.

(e)(1)(ii) Grounded conductors. Except for motor-running overload protection, overcurrent devices shall not interrupt the continuity of the grounded conductor unless all conductors of the circuit are opened simultaneously.

(e)(1)(iii) Disconnection of fuses and thermal cutouts. Except for devices provided for current-limiting on the supply side of the service disconnecting means, all cartridge fuses which are accessible to other than qualified persons and all fuses and thermal cutouts on circuits over 150 volts to ground shall be provided with disconnecting means. This disconnecting means shall be installed so that the fuse or thermal cutout can be disconnected from its supply without disrupting service to equipment and circuits unrelated to those protected by the overcurrent device.

(e)(1)(iv) Location in or on premises. Overcurrent devices shall be readily accessible. Overcurrent devices shall not be located where they could create an employee safety hazard by being exposed to physical damage or located in the vicinity of easily ignitable material.

(e)(1)(v) Arcing or suddenly moving parts. Fuses and circuit breakers shall be so located or shielded that employees will not be burned or otherwise injured by their operation.

(e)(1)(vi) Circuit breakers.

(e)(1)(vi)(A) Circuit breakers shall clearly indicate whether they are in the open (off) or closed (on) position.

(e)(1)(vi)(B) Where circuit breaker handles on switchboards are operated vertically rather than horizontally or rotationally, the up position of the handle shall be the closed (on) position.

(e)(1)(vi)(C) If used as switches in 120-volt, fluorescent lighting circuits, circuit breakers shall be marked "SWD."

(e)(2) Over 600 volts, nominal. Feeders and branch circuits over 600 volts, nominal, shall have short-circuit protection.

(f) Grounding. Paragraphs (f)(1) through (f)(11) of this section contain grounding requirements for systems, circuits, and equipment.

(f)(1) Systems to be grounded. The following systems which supply premises wiring shall be grounded:

(f)(1)(i) Three-wire DC systems. All 3-wire DC systems shall have their neutral conductor grounded.

(f)(1)(ii) Two-wire DC systems. Two-wire DC systems operating at over 50 volts through 300 volts between conductors shall be grounded unless they are rectifier-derived from an AC system complying with paragraphs (f)(1)(iii), (f)(1)(iv), and (f)(1)(v) of this section.

(f)(1)(iii) AC circuits, less than 50 volts. AC circuits of less than 50 volts shall be grounded if they are installed as overhead conductors outside of buildings or if they are supplied by transformers and the transformer primary supply system is ungrounded or exceeds 150 volts to ground.

(f)(1)(iv) AC systems, 50 volts to 1000 volts. AC systems of 50 volts to 1000 volts shall be grounded under any of the following conditions, unless exempted by paragraph (f)(1)(v) of this section:

(f)(1)(iv)(A) If the system can be so grounded that the maximum voltage to ground on the ungrounded conductors does not exceed 150 volts;

(f)(1)(iv)(B) If the system is nominally rated 480Y/277 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire in which the neutral is used as a circuit conductor;

(f)(1)(iv)(C) If the system is nominally rated 240/120 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire in which the midpoint of one phase is used as a circuit conductor; or

(f)(1)(iv)(D) If a service conductor is uninsulated.

(f)(1)(v) Exceptions. AC systems of 50 volts to 1000 volts are not required to be grounded if the system is separately derived and is supplied by a transformer that has a primary voltage rating less than 1000 volts, provided all of the following conditions are met:

(f)(1)(v)(A) The system is used exclusively for control circuits,

(f)(1)(v)(B) The conditions of maintenance and supervision assure that only qualified persons will service the installation,

(f)(1)(v)(C) Continuity of control power is required, and

(f)(1)(v)(D) Ground detectors are installed on the control system.

(f)(2) Separately derived systems. Where paragraph (f)(1) of this section requires grounding of wiring systems whose power is derived from generator, transformer, or converter windings and has no direct electrical connection, including a solidly connected grounded circuit conductor, to supply conductors originating in another system, paragraph (f)(5) of this section shall also apply.

(f)(3) Portable and vehicle-mounted generators.

(f)(3)(i) Portable generators. Under the following conditions, the frame of a portable generator need not be grounded and may serve as the grounding electrode for a system supplied by the generator:

(f)(3)(i)(A) The generator supplies only equipment mounted on the generator and/or cord- and plug-connected equipment through receptacles mounted on the generator, and

(f)(3)(i)(B) The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles are bonded to the generator frame.

(f)(3)(ii) Vehicle-mounted generators. Under the following conditions the frame of a vehicle may serve as the grounding electrode for a system supplied by a generator located on the vehicle:

(f)(3)(ii)(A) The frame of the generator is bonded to the vehicle frame, and

(f)(3)(ii)(B) The generator supplies only equipment located on the vehicle and/or cord- and plug-connected equipment through receptacles mounted on the vehicle or on the generator, and

(f)(3)(ii)(C) The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles are bonded to the generator frame, and

(f)(3)(ii)(D) The system complies with all other provisions of this section.

(f)(3)(iii) Neutral conductor bonding. A neutral conductor shall be bonded to the generator frame if the generator is a component of a separately derived system. No other conductor need be bonded to the generator frame.

(f)(4) Conductors to be grounded. For AC premises wiring systems the identified conductor shall be grounded.

(f)(5) Grounding connections.

(f)(5)(i) Grounded system. For a grounded system, a grounding electrode conductor shall be used to connect both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounded circuit conductor to the grounding electrode. Both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounding electrode conductor shall be connected to the grounded circuit conductor on the supply side of the service disconnecting means, or on the supply side of the system disconnecting means or overcurrent devices if the system is separately derived.

(f)(6) Grounding path. The path to ground from circuits, equipment, and enclosures shall be permanent and continuous.

(f)(7) Supports, enclosures, and equipment to be grounded.

(f)(7)(i) Supports and enclosures for conductors. Metal cable trays, metal raceways, and metal enclosures for conductors shall be grounded, except that:

(f)(7)(i)(A) Metal enclosures such as sleeves that are used to protect cable assemblies from physical damage need not be grounded; and

(f)(7)(i)(B) Metal enclosures for conductors added to existing installations of open wire, knob-and-tube wiring, and nonmetallic-sheathed cable need not be grounded if all of the following conditions are met:

(f)(7)(i)(B)(1) Runs are less than 25 feet (7.62 m);

(f)(7)(i)(B)(2) Enclosures are free from probable contact with ground, grounded metal, metal laths, or other conductive materials; and

(f)(7)(i)(B)(3) Enclosures are guarded against employee contact.

(f)(7)(ii) Service equipment enclosures. Metal enclosures for service equipment shall be grounded.

(f)(7)(iii) Fixed equipment. Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment which may become energized shall be grounded under any of the following conditions:

(f)(7)(iii)(A) If within 8 feet (2.44 m) vertically or 5 feet (1.52 m) horizontally of ground or grounded metal objects and subject to employee contact.

(f)(7)(iii)(B) If located in a wet or damp location and subject to employee contact.

(f)(7)(iii)(C) If in electrical contact with metal.

(f)(7)(iii)(E) If supplied by a metal-clad, metal-sheathed, or grounded metal raceway wiring method.

(f)(7)(iii)(F) If equipment operates with any terminal at over 150 volts to ground; however, the following need not be grounded:

(f)(7)(iii)(F)(1) Enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used for other than service equipment and accessible to qualified persons only;

(f)(7)(iii)(F)(2) Metal frames of electrically heated appliances which are permanently and effectively insulated from ground; and

(f)(7)(iii)(F)(3) The cases of distribution apparatus such as transformers and capacitors mounted on wooden poles at a height exceeding 8 feet (2.44 m) above ground or grade level.

(f)(7)(iv) Equipment connected by cord and plug. Under any of the conditions described in paragraphs (f)(7)(iv)(A) through (f)(7)(iv)(C) of this section, exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of cord- and plug-connected equipment which may become energized shall be grounded:

(f)(7)(iv)(A) If in a hazardous (classified) location (see 1926.407).

(f)(7)(iv)(B) If operated at over 150 volts to ground, except for guarded motors and metal frames of electrically heated appliances if the appliance frames are permanently and effectively insulated from ground.

(f)(7)(iv)(C) If the equipment is one of the types listed in paragraphs (f)(7)(iv)(C)(1) through (f)(7)(iv)(C)(5) of this section. However, even though the equipment may be one of these types, it need not be grounded if it is exempted by paragraph (f)(7)(iv)(C)(6).

(1) Hand held motor-operated tools;

(2) Cord- and plug-connected equipment used in damp or wet locations or by employees standing on the ground or on metal floors or working inside of metal tanks or boilers;

(3) Portable and mobile X-ray and associated equipment;

(4) Tools likely to be used in wet and/or conductive locations;

(5) Portable hand lamps.

(6) Tools likely to be used in wet and/or conductive locations need not be grounded if supplied through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary of not over 50 volts. Listed or labeled portable tools and appliances protected by a system of double insulation, or its equivalent, need not be grounded. If such a system is employed, the equipment shall be distinctively marked to indicate that the tool or appliance utilizes a system of double insulation.

(f)(7)(v) Nonelectrical equipment. The metal parts of the following nonelectrical equipment shall be grounded: Frames and tracks of electrically operated cranes; frames of nonelectrically driven elevator cars to which electric conductors are attached; hand-operated metal shifting ropes or cables of electric elevators, and metal partitions, grill work, and similar metal enclosures around equipment of over IkV between conductors.

(f)(8) Methods of grounding equipment.

(f)(8)(i) With circuit conductors. Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment, if required to be grounded by this subpart, shall be grounded by an equipment grounding conductor which is contained within the same raceway, cable, or cord, or runs with or encloses the circuit conductors. For DC circuits only, the equipment grounding conductor may be run separately from the circuit conductors.

(f)(8)(ii) Grounding conductor. A conductor used for grounding fixed or movable equipment shall have capacity to conduct safely any fault current which may be imposed on it.

(f)(8)(iii) Equipment considered effectively grounded. Electric equipment is considered to be effectively grounded if it is secured to, and in electrical contact with, a metal rack or structure that is provided for its support and the metal rack or structure is grounded by the method specified for the noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment in paragraph (f)(8)(i) of this section. Metal car frames supported by metal hoisting cables attached to or running over metal sheaves or drums of grounded elevator machines are also considered to be effectively grounded.

(f)(9) Bonding. If bonding conductors are used to assure electrical continuity, they shall have the capacity to conduct any fault current which may be imposed.

(f)(10) Made electrodes. If made electrodes are used, they shall be free from nonconductive coatings, such as paint or enamel; and, if practicable, they shall be embedded below permanent moisture level. A single electrode consisting of a rod, pipe or plate which has a resistance to ground greater than 25 ohms shall be augmented by one additional electrode installed no closer than 6 feet (1.83 m) to the first electrode.

CFR# 1926.405 - Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.

(a) Wiring methods. The provisions of this paragraph do not apply to conductors which form an integral part of equipment such as motors, controllers, motor control centers and like equipment.

(a)(1) General requirements.

(a)(1)(i) Electrical continuity of metal raceways and enclosures. Metal raceways, cable armor, and other metal enclosures for conductors shall be metallically joined together into a continuous electric conductor and shall be so connected to all boxes, fittings, and cabinets as to provide effective electrical continuity.

(a)(1)(ii) Wiring in ducts. No wiring systems of any type shall be installed in ducts used to transport dust, loose stock or flammable vapors. No wiring system of any type shall be installed in any duct used for vapor removal or in any shaft containing only such ducts.

(a)(2) Temporary wiring.

(a)(2)(i) Scope. The provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section apply to temporary electrical power and lighting wiring methods which may be of a class less than would be required for a permanent installation. Except as specifically modified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, all other requirements of this subpart for permanent wiring shall apply to temporary wiring installations. Temporary wiring shall be removed immediately upon completion of construction or the purpose for which the wiring was installed.

(a)(2)(ii) General requirements for temporary wiring.

(a)(2)(ii)(A) Feeders shall originate in a distribution center. The conductors shall be run as multiconductor cord or cable assemblies or within raceways; or, where not subject to physical damage, they may be run as open conductors on insulators not more than 10 feet (3.05 m) apart.

(a)(2)(ii)(B) Branch circuits shall originate in a power outlet or panelboard. Conductors shall be run as multiconductor cord or cable assemblies or open conductors, or shall be run in raceways. All conductors shall be protected by overcurrent devices at their ampacity. Runs of open conductors shall be located where the conductors will not be subject to physical damage, and the conductors shall be fastened at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3.05 m). No branch-circuit conductors shall be laid on the floor. Each branch circuit that supplies receptacles or fixed equipment shall contain a separate equipment grounding conductor if the branch circuit is run as open conductors.

(a)(2)(ii)(C) Receptacles shall be of the grounding type. Unless installed in a complete metallic raceway, each branch circuit shall contain a separate equipment grounding conductor, and all receptacles shall be electrically connected to the grounding conductor. Receptacles for uses other than temporary lighting shall not be installed on branch circuits which supply temporary lighting. Receptacles shall not be connected to the same ungrounded conductor of multiwire circuits which supply temporary lighting.

(a)(2)(ii)(D) Disconnecting switches or plug connectors shall be installed to permit the disconnection of all ungrounded conductors of each temporary circuit.

(a)(2)(ii)(E) All lamps for general illumination shall be protected from accidental contact or breakage. Metal-case sockets shall be grounded.

(a)(2)(ii)(F) Temporary lights shall not be suspended by their electric cords unless cords and lights are designed for this means of suspension.

(a)(2)(ii)(G) Portable electric lighting used in wet and/or other conductive locations, as for example, drums, tanks, and vessels, shall be operated at 12 volts or less. However, 120-volt lights may be used if protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.

(a)(2)(ii)(H) A box shall be used wherever a change is made to a raceway system or a cable system which is metal clad or metal sheathed.

(a)(2)(ii)(I) Flexible cords and cables shall be protected from damage. Sharp corners and projections shall be avoided. Flexible cords and cables may pass through doorways or other pinch points, if protection is provided to avoid damage.

(a)(2)(ii)(J) Extension cord sets used with portable electric tools and appliances shall be of three-wire type and shall be designed for hard or extra-hard usage. Flexible cords used with temporary and portable lights shall be designed for hard or extra-hard usage.

NOTE: The National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70, in Article 400, Table 400-4, lists various types of flexible cords, some of which are noted as being designed for hard or extra-hard usage. Examples of these types of flexible cords include hard service cord (types S, ST, SO, STO) and junior hard service cord (types SJ, SJO, SJT, SJTO).

(a)(2)(iii) Guarding. For temporary wiring over 600 volts, nominal, fencing, barriers, or other effective means shall be provided to prevent access of other than authorized and qualified personnel.

(b) Cabinets, boxes, and fittings.

(b)(1) Conductors entering boxes, cabinets, or fittings. Conductors entering boxes, cabinets, or fittings shall be protected from abrasion, and openings through which conductors enter shall be effectively closed. Unused openings in cabinets, boxes, and fittings shall also be effectively closed.

(b)(2) Covers and canopies. All pull boxes, junction boxes, and fittings shall be provided with covers. If metal covers are used, they shall be grounded. In energized installations each outlet box shall have a cover, faceplate, or fixture canopy. Covers of outlet boxes having holes through which flexible cord pendants pass shall be provided with bushings designed for the purpose or shall have smooth, well-rounded surfaces on which the cords may bear.

(d) Switchboards and panelboards. Switchboards that have any exposed live parts shall be located in permanently dry locations and accessible only to qualified persons. Panelboards shall be mounted in cabinets, cutout boxes, or enclosures designed for the purpose and shall be dead front. However, panelboards other than the dead front externally-operable type are permitted where accessible only to qualified persons. Exposed blades of knife switches shall be dead when open.

(e) Enclosures for damp or wet locations.

(e)(1) Cabinets, fittings, and boxes. Cabinets, cutout boxes, fittings, boxes, and panelboard enclosures in damp or wet locations shall be installed so as to prevent moisture or water from entering and accumulating within the enclosures. In wet locations the enclosures shall be weatherproof.

(e)(2) Switches and circuit breakers. Switches, circuit breakers, and switchboards installed in wet locations shall be enclosed in weatherproof enclosures.

(f) Conductors for general wiring. All conductors used for general wiring shall be insulated unless otherwise permitted in this Subpart. The conductor insulation shall be of a type that is suitable for the voltage, operating temperature, and location of use. Insulated conductors shall be distinguishable by appropriate color or other means as being grounded conductors, ungrounded conductors, or equipment grounding conductors.

(g) Flexible cords and cables.

(g)(1) Use of flexible cords and cables.

(g)(1)(i) Permitted uses. Flexible cords and cables shall be suitable for conditions of use and location. Flexible cords and cables shall be used only for:

(A) Pendants;

(B) Wiring of fixtures;

(C) Connection of portable lamps or appliances;

(D) Elevator cables;

(E) Wiring of cranes and hoists;

(F) Connection of stationary equipment to facilitate their frequent interchange;

(G) Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration; or

(H) Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are designed to permit removal for maintenance and repair.

(g)(1)(ii) Attachment plugs for cords. If used as permitted in paragraphs (g)(1)(i)(C), (g)(1)(i)(F), or (g)(1)(i)(H) of this section, the flexible cord shall be equipped with an attachment plug and shall be energized from a receptacle outlet.

(g)(1)(iii) Prohibited uses. Unless necessary for a use permitted in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, flexible cords and cables shall not be used:

(A) As a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure;

(B) Where run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors;

(C) Where run through doorways, windows, or similar openings, except as permitted in paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(1) of this section;

(D) Where attached to building surfaces; or

(E) Where concealed behind building walls, ceilings, or floors.

(g)(2) Identification, splices, and terminations.

(g)(2)(i) Identification. A conductor of a flexible cord or cable that is used as a grounded conductor or an equipment grounding conductor shall be distinguishable from other conductors.

(g)(2)(ii) Marking. Type SJ, SJO, SJT, SJTO, S, SO, ST, and STO cords shall not be used unless durably marked on the surface with the type designation, size, and number of conductors.

(g)(2)(iii) Splices. Flexible cords shall be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap. Hard service flexible cords No. 12 or larger may be repaired if spliced so that the splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced.

(g)(2)(iv) Strain relief. Flexible cords shall be connected to devices and fittings so that strain relief is provided which will prevent pull from being directly transmitted to joints or terminal screws.

(g)(2)(v) Cords passing through holes. Flexible cords and cables shall be protected by bushings or fittings where passing through holes in covers, outlet boxes, or similar enclosures.

(i) Fixture wires.

(i)(1) General. Fixture wires shall be suitable for the voltage, temperature, and location of use. A fixture wire which is used as a grounded conductor shall be identified.

(i)(2) Uses permitted. Fixture wires may be used:

(i)(2)(i) For installation in lighting, fixtures and in similar equipment where enclosed or protected and not subject to bending or twisting in use; or

(i)(2)(ii) For connecting lighting fixtures to the branch-circuit conductors supplying the fixtures.

(i)(3) Uses not permitted. Fixture wires shall not be used as branch-circuit conductors except as permitted for Class 1 power-limited circuits.

(j) Equipment for general use.

(j)(1) Lighting fixtures, lampholders, lamps, and receptacles.

(j)(1)(i) Live parts. Fixtures, lampholders, lamps, rosettes, and receptacles shall have no live parts normally exposed to employee contact. However, rosettes and cleat-type lampholders and receptacles located at least 8 feet (2.44 m) above the floor may have exposed parts.

(j)(1)(ii) Support. Fixtures, lampholders, rosettes, and receptacles shall be securely supported. A fixture that weighs more than 6 pounds (2.72 kg) or exceeds 16 inches (406 mm) in any dimension shall not be supported by the screw shell of a lampholder.

(j)(1)(iii) Portable lamps. Portable lamps shall be wired with flexible cord and an attachment plug of the polarized or grounding type. If the portable lamp uses an Edison-based lampholder, the grounded conductor shall be identified and attached to the screw shell and the identified blade of the attachment plug. In addition, portable handlamps shall comply with the following:

(j)(1)(iii)(A) Metal shell, paperlined lampholders shall not be used;

(j)(1)(iii)(B) Handlamps shall be equipped with a handle of molded composition or other insulating material;

(j)(1)(iii)(C) Handlamps shall be equipped with a substantial guard attached to the lampholder or handle;

(j)(1)(iii)(D) Metallic guards shall be grounded by the means of an equipment grounding conductor run within the power supply cord.

(j)(1)(iv) Lampholders. Lampholders of the screw-shell type shall be installed for use as lampholders only. Lampholders installed in wet or damp locations shall be of the weatherproof type.

(j)(1)(v) Fixtures. Fixtures installed in wet or damp locations shall be identified for the purpose and shall be installed so that water cannot enter or accumulate in wireways, lampholders, or other electrical parts.

(j)(2) Receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (caps).

(j)(2)(i) Configuration. Receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs shall be constructed so that no receptacle or cord connector will accept an attachment plug with a different voltage or current rating than that for which the device is intended. However, a 20-ampere T-slot receptacle or cord connector may accept a 15-ampere attachment plug of the same voltage rating. Receptacles connected to circuits having different voltages, frequencies, or types of current (ac or dc) on the same premises shall be of such design that the attachment plugs used on these circuits are not interchangeable.

(j)(2)(ii) Damp and wet locations. A receptacle installed in a wet or damp location shall be designed for the location.

(j)(3) Appliances.

(j)(3)(i) Live parts. Appliances, other than those in which the current-carrying parts at high temperatures are necessarily exposed, shall have no live parts normally exposed to employee contact.

(j)(3)(ii) Disconnecting means. A means shall be provided to disconnect each appliance.

(j)(3)(iii) Rating. Each appliance shall be marked with its rating in volts and amperes or volts and watts.

CFR# 1926.416 - General requirements.

(a) Protection of employees.

(a)(1) No employer shall permit an employee to work in such proximity to any part of an electric power circuit that the employee could contact the electric power circuit in the course of work, unless the employee is protected against electric shock by deenergizing the circuit and grounding it or by guarding it effectively by insulation or other means.

(a)(2) In work areas where the exact location of underground electric powerlines is unknown, employees using jack-hammers, bars, or other hand tools which may contact a line shall be provided with insulated protective gloves.

(a)(3) Before work is begun the employer shall ascertain by inquiry or direct observation, or by instruments, whether any part of an energized electric power circuit, exposed or concealed, is so located that the performance of the work may bring any person, tool, or machine into physical or electrical contact with the electric power circuit. The employer shall post and maintain proper warning signs where such a circuit exists. The employer shall advise employees of the location of such lines, the hazards involved, and the protective measures to be taken.

(b) Passageways and open spaces.

(b)(1) Barriers or other means of guarding shall be provided to ensure that workspace for electrical equipment will not be used as a passageway during periods when energized parts of electrical equipment are exposed.

(b)(2) Working spaces, walkways, and similar locations shall be kept clear of cords so as not to create a hazard to employees.

(c) Load ratings. In existing installations, no changes in circuit protection shall be made to increase the load in excess of the load rating of the circuit wiring.

(d) Fuses. When fuses are installed or removed with one or both terminals energized, special tools insulated for the voltage shall be used.

(e) Cords and cables.

(e)(1) Worn or frayed electric cords or cables shall not be used.

(e)(2) Extension cords shall not be fastened with staples, hung from nails, or suspended by wire.

CFR# 1926.417 - Lockout and tagging of circuits.

(a) Controls. Controls that are to be deactivated during the course of work on energized or deenergized equipment or circuits shall be tagged.

(b) Equipment and circuits. Equipment or circuits that are deenergized shall be rendered inoperative and shall have tags attached at all points where such equipment or circuits can be energized.

(c) Tags. Tags shall be placed to identify plainly the equipment or circuits being worked on.

CFR# 1926.432 - Environmental deterioration of equipment.

(a) Deteriorating agents.

(a)(1) Unless identified for use in the operating environment, no conductors or equipment shall be located:

(i) In damp or wet locations;

(ii) Where exposed to gases, fumes, vapors, liquids, or other agents having a deteriorating effect on the conductors or equipment; or

(iii) Where exposed to excessive temperatures.

(a)(2) Control equipment, utilization equipment, and busways approved for use in dry locations only shall be protected against damage from the weather during building construction.

(b) Protection against corrosion. Metal raceways, cable armor, boxes, cable sheathing, cabinets, elbows, couplings, fittings, supports, and support hardware shall be of materials appropriate for the environment in which they are to be installed.

CFR# 1926.449 - Definitions applicable to this subpart.

The definitions given in this section apply to the terms used in Subpart K. The definitions given here for "approved" and "qualified person" apply, instead of the definitions given in 1926.32, to the use of these terms in Subpart K.

Acceptable. An installation or equipment is acceptable to the Assistant Secretary of Labor, and approved within the meaning of this Subpart K: (a) If it is accepted, or certified, or listed, or labeled, or otherwise determined to be safe by a qualified testing laboratory capable of determining the suitability of materials and equipment for installation and use in accordance with this standard; or (b) With respect to an installation or equipment of a kind which no qualified testing laboratory accepts, certifies, lists, labels, or determines to be safe, if it is inspected or tested by another Federal agency, or by a State, municipal, or other local authority responsible for enforcing occupational safety provisions of the National Electrical Code, and found in compliance with those provisions.

Accepted. An installation is "accepted" if it has been inspected and found to be safe by a qualified testing laboratory.

Accessible. (As applied to wiring methods.) Capable of being removed or exposed without damaging the building structure or finish, or not permanently closed in by the structure or finish of the building. (See "concealed" and "exposed.")

Accessible. (As applied to equipment.) Admitting close approach; not guarded by locked doors, elevation, or other effective means. (See "Readily accessible.")

Ampacity. The current in amperes a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating.

Appliances. Utilization equipment, generally other than industrial, normally built in standardized sizes or types, which is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or more functions.

Approved. Acceptable to the authority enforcing this Subpart. The authority enforcing this Subpart is the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health. The definition of "acceptable" indicates what is acceptable to the Assistant Secretary of Labor, and therefore approved within the meaning of this Subpart.

Attachment plug (Plug cap)(Cap). A device which, by insertion in a receptacle, establishes connection between the conductors of the attached flexible cord and the conductors connected permanently to the receptacle.

Automatic. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature, or mechanical configuration.

Bare conductor. See "Conductor."

Bonding. The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path which will assure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any current likely to be imposed.

Bonding jumper. A reliable conductor to assure the required electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be electrically connected.

Branch circuit. The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s).

Building. A structure which stands alone or which is cut off from adjoining structures by fire walls with all openings therein protected by approved fire doors.

Cabinet. An enclosure designed either for surface or flush mounting, and provided with a frame, mat, or trim in which a swinging door or doors are or may be hung.

Certified. Equipment is "certified" if it: (a) Has been tested and found by a qualified testing laboratory to meet applicable test standards or to be safe for use in a specified manner, and (b) Is of a kind whose production is periodically inspected by a qualified testing laboratory. Certified equipment must bear a label, tag, or other record of certification.

Circuit breaker - (a) (600 volts nominal, or less.) A device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without injury to itself when properly applied within its rating.

(b) Class II, Division 2. A Class II, Division 2 location is a location in which: (1) Combustible dust will not normally be in suspension in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures, and dust accumulations are normally insufficient to interfere with the normal operation of electrical equipment or other apparatus; or (2) Dust may be in suspension in the air as a result of infrequent malfunctioning of handling or processing equipment, and dust accumulations resulting therefrom may be ignitable by abnormal operation or failure of electrical equipment or other apparatus.

NOTE: This classification includes locations where dangerous concentrations of suspended dust would not be likely but where dust accumulations might form on or in the vicinity of electric equipment. These areas may contain equipment from which appreciable quantities of dust would escape under abnormal operating conditions or be adjacent to a Class II Division 1 location, as described above, into which an explosive or ignitable concentration of dust may be put into suspension under abnormal operating conditions.

Class III locations. Class III locations are those that are hazardous because of the presence of easily ignitable fibers or flyings but in which such fibers or flyings are not likely to be in suspension in the air in quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixtures. Class 111 locations include the following:

(a) Class III, Division 1. A Class III, Division 1 location is a location in which easily ignitable fibers or materials producing combustible flyings are handled, manufactured, or used.

NOTE: Easily ignitable fibers and flyings include rayon, cotton (including cotton linters and cotton waste), sisal or henequen, istle, jute, hemp, tow, cocoa fiber, oakum, baled waste kapok, Spanish moss, excelsior, sawdust, woodchips, and other material of similar nature.

(b) Class III, Division 2. A Class III, Division 2 location is a location in which easily ignitable fibers are stored or handled, except in process of manufacture.

Collector ring. A collector ring is an assembly of slip rings for transferring electrical energy from a stationary to a rotating member.

Concealed. Rendered inaccessible by the structure or finish of the building. Wires in concealed raceways are considered concealed, even though they may become accessible by withdrawing them. [See "Accessible. (As applied to wiring methods.)"]

Conductor - (a) Bare. A conductor having no covering or electrical insulation whatsoever. (b) Covered. A conductor encased within material of composition or thickness that is not recognized as electrical insulation. (c) Insulated. A conductor encased within material of composition and thickness that is recognized as electrical insulation.

Controller. A device or group of devices that serves to govern, in some predetermined manner, the electric power delivered to the apparatus to which it is connected.

Covered conductor. See "Conductor."

Cutout. (Over 600 volts, nominal.) An assembly of a fuse support with either a fuseholder, fuse carrier, or disconnecting blade. The fuseholder or fuse carrier may include a conducting element (fuse link), or may act as the disconnecting blade by the inclusion of a nonfusible member.

Cutout box. An enclosure designed for surface mounting and having swinging doors or covers secured directly to and telescoping with the walls of the box proper. (See "Cabinet.")

Damp location. See "Location."

Dead front. Without live parts exposed to a person on the operating side of the equipment.

Device. A unit of an electrical system which is intended to carry but not utilize electric energy.

Disconnecting means. A device, or group of devices, or other means by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of supply.

Disconnecting (or Isolating) switch. (Over 600 volts, nominal.) A mechanical switching device used for isolating a circuit or equipment from a source of power.

Dry location. See "Location."

Enclosed. Surrounded by a case, housing, fence or walls which will prevent persons from accidentally contacting energized parts.

Enclosure. The case or housing of apparatus, or the fence or walls surrounding an installation to prevent personnel from accidentally contacting energized parts, or to protect the equipment from physical damage.

Equipment. A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, and the like, used as a part of, or in connection with, an electrical installation.

Exposed. (As applied to wiring methods.) On or attached to the surface or behind panels designed to allow access. [See "Accessible. (As applied to wiring methods.)"]

Exposed. (For the purposes of 1926.408(d), Communications systems.) Where the circuit is in such a position that in case of failure of supports or insulation, contact with another circuit may result.

Externally operable. Capable of being operated without exposing the operator to contact with live parts.

Feeder. All circuit conductors between the service equipment, or the generator switchboard of an isolated plant, and the final branch-circuit overcurrent device.

Festoon lighting. A string of outdoor lights suspended between two points more than 15 feet (4.57 m) apart.

Fitting. An accessory such as a locknut, bushing, or other part of a wiring system that is intended primarily to perform a mechanical rather than an electrical function.

Ground. A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

Grounded. Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

Grounded conductor. A system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded.

Grounding conductor. A conductor used to connect equipment or the grounded circuit of a wiring system to a grounding electrode or electrodes.

Grounding conductor, equipment. The conductor used to connect the noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment, raceways, and other enclosures to the system grounded conductor and/or the grounding electrode conductor at the service equipment or at the source of a separately derived system.

Grounding electrode conductor. The conductor used to connect the grounding electrode to the equipment grounding conductor and/or to the grounded conductor of the circuit at the service equipment or at the source of a separately derived system.

Ground-fault circuit interrupter. A device for the protection of personnel that functions to deenergize a circuit or portion thereof within an established period of time when a current to ground exceeds some predetermined value that is less than that required to operate the overcurrent protective device of the supply circuit.

Guarded. Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected by means of suitable covers, casings, barriers, rails, screens, mats, or platforms to remove the likelihood of approach to a point of danger or contact by persons or objects.

Hoistway. Any shaftway, hatchway, well hole, or other vertical opening or space in which an elevator or dumbwaiter is designed to operate.

Identified (conductors or terminals). Identified, as used in reference to a conductor or its terminal, means that such conductor or terminal can be recognized as grounded.

Identified (for the use). Recognized as suitable for the specific purpose, function, use, environment, application, etc. where described as a requirement in this standard. Suitability of equipment for a specific purpose, environment, or application is determined by a qualified testing laboratory where such identification includes labeling or listing.

Isolated. Not readily accessible to persons unless special means for access are used.

Isolated power system. A system comprising an isolating transformer or its equivalent, a line isolation monitor, and its ungrounded circuit conductors.

Labeled. Equipment or materials to which has been attached a label, symbol or other identifying mark of a qualified testing laboratory which indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.

Lighting outlet. An outlet intended for the direct connection of a lampholder, a lighting fixture, or a pendant cord terminating in a lampholder.

Listed. Equipment or materials included in a list published by a qualified testing laboratory whose listing states either that the equipment or material meets appropriate standards or has been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner.

Location - (a) Damp location. Partially protected locations under canopies, marquees, roofed open porches, and like locations, and interior locations subject to moderate degrees of moisture, such as some basements. (b) Dry location. A location not normally subject to dampness or wetness. A location classified as dry may be temporarily subject to dampness or wetness, as in the case of a building under construction. (c) Wet location. Installations underground or in concrete slabs or masonry in direct contact with the earth, and locations subject to saturation with water or other liquids, such as locations exposed to weather and unprotected.

Motor control center. An assembly of one or more enclosed sections having a common power bus and principally containing motor control units.

Outlet. A point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply utilization equipment.

Overcurrent. Any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a conductor. It may result from overload (see definition), short circuit, or ground fault. A current in excess of rating may be accommodated by certain equipment and conductors for a given set of conditions. Hence the rules for overcurrent protection are specific for particular situations.

Overload. Operation of equipment in excess of normal, full load rating, or of a conductor in excess of rated ampacity which, when it persists for a sufficient length of time, would cause damage or dangerous overheating. A fault, such as a short circuit or ground fault, is not an overload. (See "Overcurrent.")

Panelboard. A single panel or group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel; including buses, automatic overcurrent devices, and with or without switches for the control of light, heat, or power circuits; designed to be placed in a cabinet or cutout box placed in or against a wall or partition and accessible only from the front. (See "Switchboard.")

Power outlet. An enclosed assembly which may include receptacles, circuit breakers, fuseholders, fused switches, buses and watt-hour meter mounting means; intended to serve as a means for distributing power required to operate mobile or temporarily installed equipment.

Premises wiring system. That interior and exterior wiring, including power, lighting, control, and signal circuit wiring together with all of its associated hardware, fittings, and wiring devices, both permanently and temporarily installed, which extends from the load end of the service drop, or load end of the service lateral conductors to the outlet(s). Such wiring does not include wiring internal to appliances, fixtures, motors, controllers, motor control centers, and similar equipment. Qualified person. One familiar with the construction and operation of the equipment and the hazards involved.

Raceway. A channel designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional functions as permitted in this subpart. Raceways may be of metal or insulating material, and the term includes rigid metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, intermediate metal conduit, liquidtight flexible metal conduit, flexible metallic tubing, flexible metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, underfloor raceways, cellular concrete floor raceways, cellular metal floor raceways, surface raceways, wireways, and busways.

Readily accessible. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspections, without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders, chairs, etc. (See "Accessible.")

Receptacle. A receptacle is a contact device installed at the outlet for the connection of a single attachment plug. A single receptacle is a single contact device with no other contact device on the same yoke. A multiple receptacle is a single device containing two or more receptacles.

Receptacle outlet. An outlet where one or more receptacles are installed.

Remote-control circuit. Any electric circuit that controls any other circuit through a relay or an equivalent device.

Sealable equipment. Equipment enclosed in a case or cabinet that is provided with a means of sealing or locking so that live parts cannot be made accessible without opening the enclosure. The equipment may or may not be operable without opening the enclosure.

Separately derived system. A premises wiring system whose power is derived from generator, transformer, or converter windings and has no direct electrical connection, including a solidly connected grounded circuit conductor, to supply conductors originating in another system.

Service. The conductors and equipment for delivering energy from the electricity supply system to the wiring system of the premises served.

Service conductors. The supply conductors that extend from the street main or from transformers to the service equipment of the premises supplied.

Service drop. The overhead service conductors from the last pole or other aerial support to and including the splices, if any, connecting to the service-entrance conductors at the building or other structure.

Service-entrance conductors, overhead system. The service conductors between the terminals of the service equipment and a point usually outside the building, clear of building walls, where joined by tap or splice to the service drop.

Service-entrance conductors, underground system. The service conductors between the terminals of the service equipment and the point of connection to the service lateral. Where service equipment is located outside the building walls, there may be no service-entrance conductors, or they may be entirely outside the building.

Service equipment. The necessary equipment, usually consisting of a circuit breaker or switch and fuses, and their accessories, located near the point of entrance of supply conductors to a building or other structure, or an otherwise defined area, and intended to constitute the main control and means of cutoff of the supply.

Service raceway. The raceway that encloses the service-entrance conductors.

Signaling circuit. Any electric circuit that energizes signaling equipment.

Switchboard. A large single panel, frame, or assembly of panels which have switches, buses, instruments, overcurrent and other protective devices mounted on the face or back or both. Switchboards are generally accessible from the rear as well as from the front and are not intended to be installed in cabinets. (See "Panelboard.")

Switches - (a) General-use switch. A switch intended for use in general distribution and branch circuits. It is rated in amperes, and it is capable of interrupting its rated current at its rated voltage. (b) General-use snap switch. A form of general-use switch so constructed that it can be installed in flush device boxes or on outlet box covers, or otherwise used in conjunction with wiring systems recognized by this subpart. (c) Isolating switch. A switch intended for isolating an electric circuit from the source of power. It has no interrupting rating, and it is intended to be operated only after the circuit has been opened by some other means. (d) Motor-circuit switch. A switch, rated in horsepower, capable of interrupting the maximum operating overload current of a motor of the same horsepower rating as the switch at the rated voltage.

Transportable X-ray. X-ray equipment installed in a vehicle or that may readily be disassembled for transport in a vehicle.

Utilization equipment. Utilization equipment means equipment which utilizes electric energy for mechanical, chemical, heating, lighting, or similar useful purpose.

Utilization system. A utilization system is a system which provides electric power and light for employee workplaces, and includes the premises wiring system and utilization equipment.

Ventilated. Provided with a means to permit circulation of air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes, or vapors.

Voltage. (Of a circuit.) The greatest root-mean-square (effective) difference of potential between any two conductors of the circuit concerned.

Voltage, nominal. A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (as 120/240, 480Y/277, 600, etc.). The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment.

Voltage to ground. For grounded circuits, the voltage between the given conductor and that point or conductor of the circuit that is grounded; for ungrounded circuits, the greatest voltage between the given conductor and any other conductor of the circuit.

Watertight. So constructed that moisture will not enter the enclosure.

Weatherproof. So constructed or protected that exposure to the weather will not interfere with successful operation. Rainproof, raintight, or watertight equipment can fulfill the requirements for weatherproof where varying weather conditions other than wetness, such as snow, ice, dust, or temperature extremes, are not a factor.

Wet location. See "Location."

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