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(b)(2) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating or moving parts of equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees or otherwise create a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements as set forth in American National Standards Institute, B15.1-1953 (R1958), Safety Code for Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus.
(b)(3) Types of guarding. One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by point of operation, ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks. Examples of guarding methods are - barrier guards, two-hand tripping devices, electronic safety devices, etc.
(b)(4)(ii) The point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury, shall be guarded. The guarding device shall be in conformity with any appropriate standards therefor, or, in the absence of applicable specific standards, shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent the operator from having any part of his body in the danger zone during the operating cycle.
(b)(4)(iii) Special handtools for placing and removing material shall be such as to permit easy handling of material without the operator placing a hand in the danger zone. Such tools shall not be in lieu of other guarding required by this section, but can only be used to supplement protection provided.
(b)(5) Exposure of blades. When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than 7 feet (2.128 m) above the floor or working level, the blades shall be guarded. The guard shall have openings no larger than 1/2 inch (1.27 cm).
(b)(7) Guarding of abrasive wheel machinery - exposure adjustment. Safety guards of the types described in paragraphs (b)(8) and (9) of this section, where the operator stands in front of the opening, shall be constructed so that the peripheral protecting member can be adjusted to the constantly decreasing diameter of the wheel. The maximum angular exposure above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle as specified in paragraphs (b)(8) and (9) of this section shall never be exceeded, and the distance between the wheel periphery and the adjustable tongue or the end of the peripheral member at the top shall never exceed 1/4 inch (0.635 cm). (See Figures I-1 through I-6.)
(b)(8) Bench and floor stands. The angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides for safety guards used on machines known as bench and floor stands should not exceed 90 deg. or one-fourth of the periphery. This exposure shall begin at a point not more than 65 deg. above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle. (See Figures I-7 and I-8 and paragraph (b)(7) of this section.)
(b)(9) Cylindrical grinders. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides for safety guards used on cylindrical grinding machines shall not exceed 180 deg.. This exposure shall begin at a point not more than 65 deg. above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle. (See Figures I-11 and I-12 and paragraph (b)(7) of this section.)
(c) Personal protective equipment. Employees using hand and power tools and exposed to the hazard of falling, flying, abrasive, and splashing objects, or exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases shall be provided with the particular personal protective equipment necessary to protect them from the hazard. All personal protective equipment shall meet the requirements and be maintained according to Subparts D and E of this part.
(d)(1) All hand-held powered platen sanders, grinders with wheels 2-inch diameter or less, routers, planers, laminate trimmers, nibblers, shears, scroll saws, and jigsaws with blade shanks one-fourth of an inch wide or less may be equipped with only a positive "on-off" control.
(d)(2) All hand-held powered drills, tappers, fastener drivers, horizontal, vertical, and angle grinders with wheels greater than 2 inches in diameter, disc sanders, belt sanders, reciprocating saws, saber saws, and other similar operating powered tools shall be equipped with a momentary contact "on-off" control and may have a lock-on control provided that turnoff can be accomplished by a single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on.
(d)(3) All other hand-held powered tools, such as circular saws, chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means, shall be equipped with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the pressure is released.
(d)(4) The requirements of this paragraph shall become effective on July 15, 1972.
(d)(5) Exception: This paragraph does not apply to concrete vibrators, concrete breakers, powered tampers, jack hammers, rock drills, and similar hand operated power tools.
CFR# 1926.301 - Hand tools.
(a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools.
(b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe, end, and socket wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point that slippage occurs.
(c) Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges, and chisels, shall be kept free of mushroomed heads.
(d) The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the tool.
CFR# 1926.302 - Power-operated hand tools.
(a) Electric power-operated tools.
(a)(1) Electric power operated tools shall either be of the approved double-insulated type or grounded in accordance with Subpart K of this part.
(a)(2) The use of electric cords for hoisting or lowering tools shall not be permitted.
(b) Pneumatic power tools.
(b)(1) Pneumatic power tools shall be secured to the hose or whip by some positive means to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected.
(b)(2) Safety clips or retainers shall be securely installed and maintained on pneumatic impact (percussion) tools to prevent attachments from being accidentally expelled.
(b)(3) All pneumatically driven nailers, staplers, and other similar equipment provided with automatic fastener feed, which operate at more than 100 p.s.i. pressure at the tool shall have a safety device on the muzzle to prevent the tool from ejecting fasteners, unless the muzzle is in contact with the work surface.
(b)(4) Compressed air shall not be used for cleaning purposes except where reduced to less than 30 p.s.i. and then only with effective chip guarding and personal protective equipment which meets the requirements of Subpart E of this part. The 30 p.s.i. requirement does not apply for concrete form, mill scale and similar cleaning purposes.
(b)(5) The manufacturer's safe operating pressure for hoses, pipes, valves, filters, and other fittings shall not be exceeded,
(b)(6) The use of hoses for hoisting or lowering tools shall not be permitted.
(b)(7) All hoses exceeding 1/2-inch inside diameter shall have a safety device at the source of supply or branch line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure.
(b)(8) Airless spray guns of the type which atomize paints and fluids at high pressures (1,000 pounds or more per square inch) shall be equipped with automatic or visible manual safety devices which will prevent pulling of the trigger to prevent release of the paint or fluid until the safety device is manually released.
(b)(9) In lieu of the above, a diffuser nut which will prevent high pressure, high velocity release, while the nozzle tip is removed, plus a nozzle tip guard which will prevent the tip from coming into contact with the operator, or other equivalent protection, shall be provided.
(b)(10) Abrasive blast cleaning nozzles. The blast cleaning nozzles shall be equipped with an operating valve which must be held open manually. A support shall be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in use.
(e) Powder-actuated tools.
(e)(1) Only employees who have been trained in the operation of the particular tool in use shall be allowed to operate a powder-actuated tool.
(e)(2) The tool shall be tested each day before loading to see that safety devices are in proper working condition. The method of testing shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommended procedure.
(e)(3) Any tool found not in proper working order, or that develops a defect during use, shall be immediately removed from service and not used until properly repaired.
(e)(4) Personal protective equipment shall be in accordance with Subpart E of this part.
(e)(5) Tools shall not be loaded until just prior to the intended firing time. Neither loaded nor empty tools are to be pointed at any employees. Hands shall be kept clear of the open barrel end.
(e)(6) Loaded tools shall not be left unattended.
(e)(7) Fasteners shall not be driven into very hard or brittle materials including, but not limited to, cast iron, glazed tile, surface-hardened steel, glass block, live rock, face brick, or hollow tile.
(e)(8) Driving into materials easily penetrated shall be avoided unless such materials are backed by a substance that will prevent the pin or fastener from passing completely through and creating a flying missile hazard on the other side.
(e)(9) No fastener shall be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening.
(e)(10) Tools shall not be used in an explosive or flammable atmosphere.
(e)(11) All tools shall be used with the correct shield, guard, or attachment recommended by the manufacturer.
(e)(12) Powder-actuated tools used by employees shall meet all other applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, A10.3-1970, Safety Requirements for Explosive-Actuated Fastening Tools.
CFR# 1926.304 - Woodworking tools.
(d) Guarding. All portable, power-driven circular saws shall be equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe. The upper guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool is withdrawn from the work, the lower guard shall automatically and instantly return to the covering position.
(e) Personal protective equipment. All personal protective equipment provided for use shall conform to Subpart E of this part.
(f) Other requirements. All woodworking tools and machinery shall meet other applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, 01.1-1961, Safety Code for Woodworking Machinery.
(g) Radial saws.
(g)(1) The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor. The upper hood shall be constructed in such a manner and of such material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will defect sawdust away from the operator. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum protection possible for the operation being performed.
(h) Hand-fed crosscut table saws.
(h)(1) Each circular crosscut table saw shall be guarded by a hood which shall meet all the requirements of paragraph (i)(1) of this section for hoods for circular ripsaws.
(i) Hand-fed ripsaws.
(i)(1) Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guarded by a hood which shall completely enclose the portion of the saw above the table and that portion of the saw above the material being cut. The hood and mounting shall be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut but it shall not offer any considerable resistance to insertion of material to saw or to passage of the material being sawed. The hood shall be made of adequate strength to resist blows and strains incidental to reasonable operation, adjusting, and handling, and shall be so designed as to protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. It shall be made of material that is soft enough so that it will be unlikely cause tooth breakage. the hood shall be so mounted as to insure that its operation will be positive, reliable, and in true alignment with the saw; and the mounting shall be adequate in strength to resist any reasonable side thrust or other force tending to throw it out of line.