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Drinking Water Glossary

Cryptosporidium

A protozoan associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans. The disease can be transmitted through ingestion of drinking water, person-to-person contact, or other exposure routes. Cryptosporidiosis may cause acute diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and fever that last 1-2 weeks in healthy adults, but may be chronic or fatal in immuno-compromised people.

Exposure

Contact between a person and a chemical. Exposures are calculated as the amount of chemical available for absorption by a person.

Giardia lamblia

A protozoan, which can survive in water for 1 to 3 months, associated with the disease giardiasis. Ingestion of this protozoan in contaminated drinking water, exposure from person-to-person contact, and other exposure routes may cause giardiasis. The symptoms of this gastrointestinal disease may persist for weeks or months and include diarrhea, fatigue, and cramps.

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)

Maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system.

Nitrates

Inorganic compounds that can enter water supplies from fertilizer runoff and sanitary wastewater discharges. Nitrates in drinking water are associated with methemoglobinemia, or blue baby syndrome, which results from interferences in the bloods ability to carry oxygen.

Organics

Chemical molecules that contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen. Organic contaminants of concern to drinking water include chlorohydrocarbons, pesticides, and others.

Per capita

Per person; generally used in expressions of water use, gallons per capita per day (gpcd).

Point-of-Use Water Treatment

Refers to devices used in the home or office on a specific tap to provide additional drinking water treatment.

Point-of-Entry Water Treatment

Refers to devices used in the home where water pipes enter to provide additional treatment of drinking water used throughout the home.

Radionuclides

Elements that undergo a process of natural decay. As radionuclides decay, they emit radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles and gamma photons. Radiation can cause adverse health effects, such as cancer, so limits are placed on radionuclide concentrations in drinking water.

Risk

The potential for harm to people exposed to chemicals. In order for there to be risk, there must be hazard and there must be exposure.

Treatment Technique

A specific treatment method required by EPA to be used to control the level of a contaminant in drinking water. In specific cases where EPA has determined it is not technically or economically feasible to establish an MCL, EPA can instead specify a treatment technique.

Total Coliform

Bacteria that are used as indicators of fecal contaminants in drinking water. (often E. coli)

Toxicity

The property of a chemical to harm people who come into contact with it.

Volatile Organics

Chemicals that, as liquid, evaporate into the air.

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