The following references provide information regarding recognition of asbestos hazards. However, some of them are pre-1994, and their treatment of compliance issues is out of date since the standards were updated in 1994. Check the dates (provided)
. Utah Division of Air Quality, 2 pages. Discusses asbestos minerals, diseases, exposure, and occurrence.
. International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS), (1988). Provides an international point of view. This summary discusses aspects of asbestos production, use, and disposal, as well as health effects, and sampling and analysis procedures.
Chrysotile Reference Guide
. Asbestos Institute. Provides an extensive overview of asbestos types and health related issues. Explores evidence of lower toxicity for chrysotile. To read why OSHA rejected this concept, use your browser's "find" feature to locate "chrysotile" in the page.
Asbestos in the Home
. EPA Region IV, 4 pages. The aim of this booklet is to respond to some frequently asked questions about asbestos and to provide information to help the homeowner make informed decisions about its care and maintenance.
Asbestos in Your Home
. EPA Region III (1997), 1 page. Summarizes information for the homeowner, but is applicable to businesses as well.
Chrysotile Evaluated by Health Experts
. World Health Organization (1996), 1 page. This press release summarizes a meeting held in July 1996 which brought together a group of international experts.
USGS - Minerals Information: Asbestos
. Many thousands of tons of asbestos are currently imported, mined, and used every year in the U.S., mostly for roofing, friction products, and gaskets. The references in this link provide information on the amount of asbestos produced by year.
The Asbestos Advisor 2.0.
The Asbestos Advisor software is an interactive compliance assistance tool. Once installed on your PC, it can interview you about buildings and worksites, and the kinds of tasks workers perform there. It will produce guidance on how the Asbestos standard may apply to those buildings and that work.
: When queried "to obtain general guidance" (selection 1), the Asbestos Advisor asks if you have any employees. If you respond with "no" (selection 2), the Asbestos Advisor concludes you are "not subject to regulations" under OSHA.
This is not accurate!
Building owners and managers may be subject to the OSHA Asbestos Standards if employees of
employer work in the building.
samples must be analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) for OSHA purposes. PCM methods accurately assess fiber exposure levels, but PCM can not differentiate between asbestos and non-asbestos fibers. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods can identify fibers, but fiber counting accuracy is unacceptably poor.
NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM)
includes asbestos methods 7400 and 7402. Method 7400 is a PCM procedure, equivalent to the OSHA methods. Method 7402 uses TEM to identify fibers (OSHA will accept this TEM procedure, as it uses PCM to determine exposure). These methods are available online as compressed (ZIP) WordPerfect 5.1+ files:
. EPA Determination Detail C112 (1991), 2 pages. EPA rules require "point counting" to improve accuracy when asbestos content is less than 10%.
ANSI/ASTM E1368-96A Practice for Visual Inspection of Asbestos Abatement Projects This standard establishes accepted practices for evaluating asbestos abatement projects. This standard is available from ANSI.
Preventing Asbestos Disease Among Auto Mechanics
. EPA (1986), 4 pages. This document is provided by the Coordinating Committee for Automotive Repair (CCAR). It examines exposure opportunities among auto mechanics involved with brake linings, clutch facings, and other friction materials.
. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1998, February 19), 157 KB PDF file. Index to specifications includes Section 02080, Asbestos Abatement. Specifications can be downloaded in PDF or a special SGML format (
to view and edit this format is available online).
Demolition Practices Under the Asbestos NESHAP
. EPA (1996), 10 pages. This publication summarizes
-accepted work practices. OSHA requirements differ, especially regarding "nonfriable" ACM (asbestos contractors may not be aware of this difference).
Operations and maintenance (O&M) practices are used to control hazards of asbestos.
How Safe is Asbestos Cement
. Environmental Health Service of the Health Department of Western Australia (1997), 3 pages. This resource gives advice on maintaining Asbestos Cement (AC). Note: Asbestos cement is also known as "Transite."
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